Subject : It is Obligatory to Avoid any Word, Action, or Belief that Contradicts the Veneration of the Quran
Fatwa Number : 3794
Date : 22-08-2023
Classified : Call to Islam & Sincerity in Advice
Fatwa Type : Search Fatawaa

Question :

What is the ruling of Sharia on the person who said, while in a state of extreme anger, that he doesn't believe in the Quran? Does this make him exit the fold of Islam given the fact that it he was involved in a heated argument?

The Answer :

All perfect praise be to Allah the Lord of the Worlds. May His peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Mohammad and upon all his family and companions.


It is incumbent upon the Muslim to believe in the Holy Quran, to hold it in high esteem, and to treat it with respect and reverence. Allah The Almighty Says (What means): "Such (is his state): and whoever holds in honor the symbols of God, (in the sacrifice of animals), such (honor) should come truly from piety of heart." [Al-Hajj/32]. The Muslim must distance himself or herself from any word, action, or belief that contradicts the respect and veneration of the Quran, as this could potentially lead to disbelief or apostasy, seeking refuge in Allah from such outcomes. However, it should be noted that labeling someone as a disbeliever (Kafir) or declaring apostasy is a judicial ruling that requires proper procedure, evidence, and thorough discussion. It is not left to the discretion of individuals or the public. Our Prophet, Peace and Blessings of Allah Be upon him, warned against adopting a hasty attitude of declaring others as disbelievers and said: "If a man says to his brother, O disbeliever, then surely one of them is such." [Agreed upon].


We differentiate between stating that an action constitutes disbelief and pronouncing a person as a disbeliever. In the former case, we explain what leads to disbelief, while in the latter case, we pass judgment on individuals. The judgment on individuals requires a legal process and a qualified judge.


As for uttering disbelief in the Holy Quran, it falls within the realm of words of disbelief and apostasy, which lead to exiting Islam and departing from the faith. The renowned scholar Imam Al-Nawawi (may Allah have mercy upon him) stated: "The consensus of the Ummah (Muslim community) affirms the obligation of honoring and sanctifying the Quran absolutely, preserving and safeguarding it. They also unanimously agree that whoever belittles the Quran, any part of it, the Quranic text, throws it in impure places, denies its judgments or reports, rejects what it affirms, or affirms what it rejects, or doubts any of this, while being knowledgeable of it, commits disbelief." [Al-Majmu,' Vol.2, Page 170].


Furthermore, not believing in a single verse of the Quran constitutes disbelief and apostasy. Al-Imam Al-Shirbini (may Allah have mercy upon him) stated: "Regarding matters that necessitate apostasy: Whoever denies the Creator {Allah The Exalted} or denies the Prophets, claiming that Allah did not send them, or denies the prophet hood of a prophet, or accuses a messenger or a prophet of lying, or insults them, or belittles them, their names, Allah's name, His command, or His promise, or denies any verse of the Quran... all these mentioned matters constitute disbelief." [Al-Iqna' Fi Halli Alfaz Abi Shuja,' Vol.2, P 551].


If a person intentionally, willingly, and knowingly utters the previous statement of disbelief, they are considered to have committed disbelief and apostasy. However, if the person is mentally incapacitated or coerced, then disbelief and apostasy do not apply to them. The Supreme Judge, the Imam Al-Mawardi of the Shafi'i school, may Allah have mercy upon him, stated: "If a Muslim openly declares a statement of disbelief and it is not known that they were coerced into it or held that belief involuntarily, then if they are within the domain of Islam (Muslim territory), a ruling of disbelief and apostasy is passed upon them. This is because in the domain of Islam, there is no compulsion. If they are in the domain of war (non-Muslim territory), their situation is taken into account. If they utter the statement while being constrained or imprisoned, it is apparent from their situation that they are compelled to utter the statement of disbelief. Therefore, a ruling of apostasy is not passed unless it is known that they hold the belief of disbelief, even if they are under constraint. If they utter it while being completely free to choose, then it is apparent from their situation that they are voluntarily uttering the statement of disbelief, and a ruling of apostasy is passed, unless it is known that they said it under duress." [Al-Hawi Al-Kabir, Vol.13, P.449].


If a person's tongue inadvertently slips and utters a statement of disbelief without intention, they are not held accountable for it. Imam Al-Shirazi, may Allah have mercy upon him, justified this with the following statement: "Because what the tongue utters unintentionally is not held against the person, just as if their tongue slipped into a statement of disbelief." [Al-Muhadhdhab, Vol.3, Page 94].


A Muslim is not excused due to anger; they are held accountable for their words and actions, except in cases where their mental faculties are completely impaired and they are unaware of what they are saying. Sheikh al-Islam Imam Al-Shihab Al-Ramli (may Allah have mercy upon him) was asked about: "swearing divorce in a state of intense anger that leads to a loss of self-control." Does it take effect or not? Is there a distinction between implied and explicit statements? Does the person swearing the oath, claiming extreme anger and lack of intention, speak the truth?" He answered: "Anger has no consideration in such cases. However, if the person is devoid of reason, they are excused." [Fatawa Al-Ramli, Vol.3/P.273].


In conclusion, it is incumbent upon a Muslim to distance themselves from blasphemous statements. Anyone who finds themselves uttering such words should swiftly renew their faith by reaffirming their heart's commitment to the declaration of faith: "There is no god worthy of worship except Allah, and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah." They should also believe in the Holy Quran and utter the testimony of faith (Shahadah), while feeling remorse for their previous words, and determine to avoid uttering the like. And Allah The Almighty Knows Best.




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