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Fatawaa


Subject : Islamic Ruling on Sending Peace and Blessings upon Non-Prophets

Fatwa Number : 3834

Date : 26-11-2023

Classified : Eschatology and Related Matters

Fatwa Type : Search Fatawaa


Question :

Is it allowed to send peace and blessings upon the parents of the Prophet Mohammad, peace and blessings be upon him?



The Answer :

All perfect praise be to Allah the Lord of the Worlds. May His peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Mohammad and upon all his family and companions.

 

Our belief is that the parents of the Prophet Mohammad, peace be upon him and his family, are believers who will be saved. Many scholars from Ahlu Sunah wal Jama`ah have affirmed this, and one of the evidences for this is the statement of Allah, the Most High: "nor would We visit with Our Wrath until We had sent an apostle (to give warning).." {Al-Isra, 15}. Imam al-Suyuti, may Allah have mercy on him, said: "Our Ash'ari theologians and Shafi'i jurists have unanimously agreed that whoever dies without receiving the call (to Islam) dies in a state of salvation." [Al-Hawi li'l-Fatawa, Vol. 2/P. 244]. Undoubtedly, this includes the parents of the Prophet, peace be upon him.

Imam al-Bajuri, may Allah have mercy on him, said in his explanation of "Jawharat al-Tawhid" on page 68: "Since the people of the interval (the period in which Allah didn`t send messengers between Isa and Mohammad (PBUT)) are saved-based on the preponderant view of the scholars-the parents of the Prophet, peace be upon him, are also saved because they are from the people of the interval. In fact, all the grandparents of the Prophet, peace be upon him, are saved and judged to be believers. They were not tarnished with disbelief, impurity, or any defect of pre-Islamic practices. This is supported by textual evidence, such as the verse: " And thy movements among those who prostrate themselves," {Ash-Shu'ara, 219}, and the saying of the Prophet, peace be upon him: "I have been continuously moving in the loins of the pure, then in the wombs of the pure." This is in addition to many other well-established hadiths in this regard. As for Azar, he was the uncle of Ibrahim (Abraham), and he was referred to as "father" because it was a custom among the Arabs to call the paternal uncle "father."

As for using the expressions: " (peace and blessings be upon him), " " (peace be upon him), or " (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) for individuals other than the prophets, including the parents of our Prophet, peace be upon him, it is a matter of disagreement among scholars. Some permit it, while others prohibit it on the basis of either being an abominable matter that is almost unlawful (Karahat Tahrim) and an abominable matter that is almost lawful (Karahat Tanzieh).

In [Al-Adhkar (The Book of Remembrances), page 118], Sheikh al-Islam Imam al-Nawawi, may Allah have mercy on him, mentioned: "There is a consensus on sending blessings upon our Prophet Mohammad, peace be upon him. Likewise, there is a consensus among those considered authoritative in this matter that it is permissible and recommended to send blessings upon all the prophets and angels independently. As for individuals other than the prophets, the majority agree that it is not permissible to initiate sending blessings upon them. So, one does not say, for example, "Abu Bakr, peace be upon him." There is disagreement on this prohibition. Some of our companions said it is forbidden, while most of them said it is an abominable matter that is almost lawful (Karahat Tanzeeh). Many of them argue that it is a matter of preference and not disliked. The correct opinion, as held by the majority, is that it is an abominable matter that is almost lawful (Karahat Tanzeeh). This is because it has become a distinctive feature, according to the language of the early Muslims, to specifically mention sending blessings upon the prophets, may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon them."

In conclusion, along with the belief that the parents of our Prophet Mohammad, peace be upon him, are saved and will be among the people of faith on the Day of Judgment, there is a general supplication for them like that for all believers. However, they are not singled out with the specific mention of sending blessings independently. This is due to the disagreement among scholars on this matter and the consensus among the majority of scholars that it is not permissible to specifically invoke blessings on individuals other than the prophets.

In the commentary on "Al-Jawharat al-Tawhid" by Imam al-Bajuri, it is stated that singling out individuals other than the prophets with the expression "Peace and blessings be upon him" is not permissible. This is considered a distinctive feature for the prophets when mentioning them, and others should not be included with them in this manner. Therefore, it is not said, for example, "Abu Bakr, peace and blessings be upon him," or "Ali, peace and blessings be upon him." Even if the meaning is correct, it is not appropriate to use this specific formulation, as it is a distinctive feature associated with the mention of Prophets. Similarly, it isn`t said "Mohammad the Almighty and Exalted" because this formulation is specific to Allah. However, annexing the parents of the Prophet when sending blessings upon him, is permissible, such as saying, "O Allah, send peace and blessings upon our Master Mohammad, his parents, his family, and all his companions." And Allah the Almighty knows best.






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