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Subject : Ruling on the Drum (Tabl) Used for Entertainment and Singing

Fatwa Number : 2679

Date : 12-09-2012

Classified : Singing & Amusements

Fatwa Type : Search Fatawaa

Question :

What is the ruling of Sharia on the drum (Tabl)?

The Answer :

All perfect praise be to Allah the Lord of the Worlds. May His peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Mohammad and upon all his family and companions.

The drum used for entertainment and singing is included under the prohibition of Ma`aazif (Musical instruments). This is because it was established that the Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) said: "From among my followers there will be some people who will consider illegal sexual intercourse, the wearing of silk, the drinking of alcoholic drinks and the use of musical instruments, as lawful. And there will be some people who will stay near the side of a mountain and in the evening their shepherd will come to them with their sheep and ask them for something, but they will say to him, 'Return to us tomorrow.' Allah will destroy them during the night and will let the mountain fall on them, and He will transform the rest of them into monkeys and pigs and they will remain so till the Day of Resurrection." {Related by Bukhari}. Al-Joainy said, "The Kuba, an oblong drum, is prohibited just like other Ma`aazif." {Nehayat al-Matlab, V.11:172}. 

However, the drum deemed lawful by the scholars is the double-headed, which is used in war, announcing the arrival of great caravans or the kids drum sets played with during holidays, in addition to other needs (for using the drum) that have nothing to do with singing and entertainment. These types of drums are permissible by analogy to Dufoof, singular Duf and not being associated with singing.

Ar-Ramli said, "The Kuba is prohibited because it was transmitted to us that Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) said: "God most high has made wine, maisir and the kuba unlawful and he said, "Every intoxicant is unlawful.” The kuba is said to be the drum. Ahmad transmitted it in al-Musnad. This means that drums other than the kuba are permissible to use." {Nehayat al-Mohtaj, V.8:298}.

"(His saying drums other than Kuba are permissible to use means that the drums of the poor and that of El-Misaharaty ( The name given to the person who walks and beats a drum in residential areas to wake people up to eat their Sohor (a meal eaten before the beginning of the fast) before morning prayers. Yet, today, this ancient practice seems to be in decline) are lawful as well." {Hasheyat Qhaliobi wa Amirah, V.4:321}. And Allah the Almighty knows best.

*The disagreement amongst scholars regarding the ruling on listening to music has been highlighted in Fatwa No. (3463).



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