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Fatawaa


Fatwa Number : 3021

Subject : Status of Intellectual Sciences in Islamic Civilization

Classified : Knowledge

Fatwa Type : Search Fatawaa


Question :

Did the Islamic civilization have its own intellectual sciences? and what is the Islamic ruling on learning theology, philosophy, and the ten building blocks of all sciences, in addition to sciences originating from other civilizations?


The Answer :

Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds.

The Islamic civilization is practical, realistic and creative. It participated, along with other civilizations, in various sciences. However, it is distinguished for its own intellectual sciences refined by the great minds of the Muslim scholars. Some of these are theology, logic and the ten building blocks of all sciences, in addition to sciences resting on evidence from the Noble Quran and the Prophetic Sunnah, such as the principles of jurisprudence. Moreover, not every science that exists in another civilization is false. Rather, whatever contradicts the truth is false and wisdom is the faithful one`s wish and he is worthier to have it. Allah the Almighty has created a balance for everything and commanded us to observe it. He the Almighty says, "Fill the measure when ye measure, and weigh with a right balance; that is meet, and better in the end."{Al-Isra`, 35}.

It is stated in {Moghni Al-Mohtaaj}, "Establishing scientific proofs is a collective obligation." Allah the Exalted says, "And the believers should not all go out to fight. Of every troop of them, a party only should go forth, that they (who are left behind) may gain sound knowledge in religion, and that they may warn their folk when they return to them, so that they may beware."{At-Tawbah, 122}. It could even be an individual obligation on the part of the scientist who has the capacity to establish scientific proofs and reject suspicions about Islam. In addition, it is stated in {Menah Al-Jaleel}, "Whoever has the capacity to be an Imam and conduct Ijtihad {Independent reasoning} is obliged to seek knowledge. In other words, it is an individual obligation on whomsoever has that capacity." These sciences include theology, logic and the ten building blocks of all sciences.

Theology is one of the most sublime religious sciences. According to the prominent scholar Al-Sa`ad Ataftazaani, "Partial judgments, with their detailed evidence, rely on knowledge of holistic evidence in terms of leading to legal rulings. They also require knowing Allah, His beautiful attributes, the honesty of His Messenger (PBUH), the implications of his miracles, and the like."{Al-Talweeh Ala Al-Tawdeeh}.

As for logic and the ten building blocks of all sciences, they help acquire the necessary knowledge for making scientific judgments, differentiating sound from corrupt thought, knowing the kinds of species and the related rulings.

Logic and the ten building blocks of all sciences serve the sciences of Sharia, pave the way for proving religious issues, establish proofs, and reject suspicions about Islam. Scholars are used to stating the ten building blocks of all sciences in the books about theology and the principles of jurisprudence, such as {Ibkaar Al-Afkaar} by Al-Amaadi and {Ghayat Al-Wosool} by the Sheikh of Islam Zakaria Al-Ansari.

Not only that, but also scholars of Usul Al-Fiqh(Principles of Jurisprudence} have prefaced their books with intellectual issues from logic and theology, such as the book {Al-Mostasfa} by Al-Ghazali and {Mokhtasar Ibn Al-Haajib}.

Further, these intellectual issues enable the scholars to argue with wisdom and fair preaching, which is required by Islamic Sharia, in accordance with the verse in which Almighty Allah said, "Call unto the way of thy Lord with wisdom and fair exhortation, and reason with them in the better way."{An-Nahl, 125}. And Allah, the Almighty knows best.




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